Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)
This method is for the detection of surface and sub-surface defects in ferrous materials. They make use of an externally applied magnetic field or electric current through the material, and the principle that the magnetic flux will leave the part at the area of the flaw.
The presence of a surface or near surface flaw (void) in the material causes distortion in the magnetic flux through it, which in turn causes leakage of the magnetic fields at the flaw. This deformation of the magnetic field is not limited to the immediate locality of the defect but extends for a considerable distance; even through the surface and into the air if the magnetism is intense enough. Thus the size of the distortion is much larger than that of the defect and is made visible at the surface of the part by means of the tiny particles that are attracted to the leakage fields.
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